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Globalization and Enlightenment thought(3)

 Through the discussion in "Globalization and Enlightenment thought (1)" and "Globalization and Enlightenment thought(2)"[1], I have explained  that we need to explain "why" for lots of variety of things. This time I would like to discuss how far we have to explain for those "why"s. 

 Considering lots of examples, my conclusion is that three things are enough to be acceptable. First is that it brings lots of variety of people to join the competition. Second is that it does not deny unlimited possibilities. Third is that it does not violates the social order or human rights. I will explain these as follows;

1.Bringing lots of variety of people to join the competition.

 If you launch a project for "Mieruka (Visualization which improves the working process by visualize the problem and everyone can see the problem)", you almost always meet the person who questions that just "Mieruka" does not mean anything more than just visualize the work. Although such question might be true in some aspects, there is a possibility that such person has narrow view of globalization.

 The purpose of "Mieruka" is to introduce lots of variety of people to join the competition. So it means a lot by just "Mieruka".

 Google has the mission statements "to organize the world's information and make it universally accessible and useful"[2]. This is "Mieruka" of all the information. Although lots of other companies which provide the search engine had become disappeared, the reason why Google is still alive is because of "Mieruka" of information.

 YouTube also became the popular services, having overcome the copyright law. This is also because it gives a chance to lots of people to join the competition.

 What I mean for the competition is that the system which provides lots of people to think like Descartes.

2. Unlimited is more acceptable than limited.

 Although the fact that the entire human will die or all the thing will be disappeared is true, it will be more acceptable when you deny it. When you think of why you need to work or why you want to be promoted, it will have no meaning when you thought that all the thing will be disappeared when you die. Thinking that you will grow eternally will be more acceptable.

 For example, when you want to discuss the "going concern", no one will discuss seriously when you insist that almost all the companies have been disappear so "going concern" is wrong.

3.The thing which does not violates the social order or human rights.

 Although your explanation pass through the process of 1 and 2 above, it will not be acceptable when it violates the social order or human rights. You cannot upload the all the thing in YouTube when it violates the human rights or social order.

  In plain words of 1, 2,3 above, it will be acceptable for the reason why something exits when you explain that such things exits for encouraging lots of people to be positive in order to compete for the equation of the method of thinking like Descartes. You can define "encouraging lots of people to be positive in order to compete for the aquition of the method of thinking like Descartes." as simply "the reason to live". If you want to succeed, you must check whether you have been giving other persons “the reason to live". For example, if you are musician who does not sell well, you need to check whether your songs or your performance gives “the reason to live" to the listener or audience and such performance or music is the one which you simplify wanted to sing or perform. I am not saying that some genre of" music such as cheering songs" are good since some people like "death metals" find " the reason for live" from listening such music but I just want to pointed out that your music or performance might be simply self-centered.

 In summary, I have discussed the globalization and Enlightment thought three times. Next time, I would like to discuss “2. Unlimited is more acceptable than limited.

 

 

References:

[1] You can find "Globalization and Enlightenment thought (1)" and" Globalization and Enlightenment thought (2)"below

 

・Globalization and Enlightenment thought (1)

deepdeepthinking.hatenablog.com

 

 

・Glolbalizationand Enlightenment thought(2)"

 

 

deepdeepthinking.hatenablog.com

 

[2]Google - Wikipedia

グローバリゼーションと啓蒙思想(3)

 グローバリゼーションと啓蒙思想(1)(2)[1]で、現代は「なぜか」というのを説明する必要あるというのがどんどん求められていることを説明しました。今度は、どの程度理由を説明する必要があるのかというのを検討したいと思います。

 いろいろと考えられる事例から推測したのですが、結論から言うと、3つだと考えています。1.出来るだけ多く、多様な人間を競争に参加させるものであること、2.その行き着く形が無限の可能性を肯定するものであること、3.1、2でも公共の秩序や人権を侵害しないこと、の3つです。詳細は以下に説明します。

1.出来るだけ多くの、多様な人間を競争に参加させるものであること

 社内で見える化のプロジェクトを立ち上げようとすると必ず、ただ見えるだけにして何の意味もないじゃんというひとがかならずいます。その人のいうこともある意味正しいのですが、そのように意見する人は、グロバリゼーションを狭い意味でしか見えていない可能性があります。

 見える化の意義は、ありとあらゆる人が年齢や経験に関係になく競争に立てることに意味があるのです。したがって、見えるようにしただけで意味があるのです。

 グーグルは、「世界中の情報を整理し、世界中の人々がアクセスできて使えるようにすること」をミッション・ステートメント[2]にあげていています。これは情報の見える化だと思います。同じような検索サービスが淘汰する中でグーグルが生き残っているのは、あらゆる情報を見える化しているからでしょう。

 その流れでユーチューブが、著作権の問題を乗り越えて、サービスとして成り立っているのは、出来るだけ多様な人材が競争に立つチャンスを与えているからだと思います。

  ここでいう競争とは、デカルト的なものの考え方を身につける競争です。

2.有限と考えるよりも無限・永遠と考える理由の方が受け入れやすい

 人間いつかは、誰でも死ぬ、物はいつかは無くなるというのは疑いのない真実だと思いますが、その考え方を否定する方が受け入れやすいというものです。なぜ働くのか、なぜ出世したいのかというときに、いつかは死ぬのだから意味無いじゃんというとすべて意味がなくなってしまいます。自分は永遠に発展するのだという論理の方が受け入れやすいのです。

  たとえば、会計の考え方のひとつのゴーイングコンサーンという考え方に対して、いつかは会社は滅びるでしょうから、考え方おかしくないですかという議論をしようとしても、まともに議論してくれる人はいないのです。

 

 3.1,2でも社会秩序を壊すもの、人権侵害するものはダメ

 当然ですが、1,2でも社会秩序を壊すものは、認められません。多様性が認められるといっても、人権を侵害するものや社会秩序を壊してしまうものは、ダメなのです。見える化するからといって、Youtubeになんでもかんでも公開してしまうというのはできないです。

 

 1,2,3を平たくいうと、要するに、いろいろな人間がどんどん前向きに生きてデカルト的な競争の土台(すなわちデカルト的なものの考え方を身につける競争の土台に立つ意欲につながる商品や人材)は、存在意義はあると認められやすいということだと思います。「いろいろな人間がどんどん前向きに生きてデカルト的な競争の土台に立つ意欲」のことを「生きがい」と定義すると、成功したければあらゆる人に「生きがい」が与えられているかどうかというのを確認することが重要です。たとえば、あなたが売れないミュージシャンだったら、自分が売りたい曲・歌いたい曲ではなく、人に聞いてもらい、聞いてもらったその人になんらかの形で「生きがい」を与えられているかどうかを成功するにあたって確認すべきところです。それはいわゆる「がんばれソング」である必要があると言っているわけではなく、ひとによっては、デスメタルで元気になる人もいるので、あるジャンルのミュージックが良いと限定するつもりはないのですが、自己満足になっていないか確認するポイントになると思います。

  以上、3回にわたりグローバリゼーションについて説明して行きました。次回は、2の「2.有限と考えるよりも無限・永遠と考える理由の方が受け入れやすい」について議論をフォーカスしていきたいと思います。

出典

[1]グローバリゼーションと啓蒙思想の(1)、(2)は以下をご参照

・グローバリゼーションと啓蒙思想(1)

deepdeepthinking.hatenablog.com

・グローバリゼーションと啓蒙思想(2)

deepdeepthinking.hatenablog.com

 

[2]Google - Wikipedia

Globalization and Enlightenment thought(2)

 Last time(Globalization and Enlightenment thought(1) - すべての会社員を支援するブログ), I explained that the contemporary world is the place where the Enlightment thought has been spreading over the world from 18th century. This time, I would like to discuss what the ultimate stage of this phenomenon would be.

 The conclusion is that ultimate stage over the world will be almost same as the United State. It might be not perfectly same but it will reach as same. The reason I think as such is because the Enlightment thought has been taken root in the United States

1.The reason why I think the Ultimate world is United States.

 Alexis de Tocqueville wrote a book called ”Democracy in America" in the middle of 19th century. This is the book in which the analysis of the democracy is written by Tocqueville who traveled over the United States. If you read this book, you will find that the main characteristic of the people in the United States has not been changed since then.

 One of the examples for that is the people in the United States strongly believes the illimitable possibilities of human beings [1]. This might be difficult for Japanese to understand it but in summary, all human has the unlimited possibility to success. Japanese are thought traditionally the fact that all the prosperity is subject to decline but you will find that such thought will be very difficult to be acceptable in the United States if you talked with the persons in the United States.

 The point I want to focus on this book is that the people in the United States will learn the analysis method of Rene Descartes without specially being thought of it. [2]

 The analysis method of Rene Descartes is explained in the book called "Discourse on the Method".  This book is famous for “I think, there for I am" but originally it is written for the explanation of the analysis method of Rene Descartes. In this book, he emphasized that all the problem will be solved by his method! There are four processes [3]. I will explain it with our today's business word.

 First, you will never accept it as true if you cannot prove it as such.

⇒This means that by questioning " Is it really so?” you only accept the one you feel it as true. If you say this in our today's business word, it will be Sangen Shugii [The Three Actuals] "The actual place, the actual part, the actual situation." in Toyota. If you don't know what is happening in the actual place, it is often the case where the raised problem will not be solved properly.

 Second, to divide the problem in the part as smallest as possible. Third, to solve from the easiest one to more complex one and assign them in thought a certain order.

⇒ I think some of the factors of the second method and the third method are overlapped. What are being said in these method is same as "Pay attention to big picture, start small station" or "a journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step" 

 Last, in every case to make enumerations so complete, and reviews so general that I might be assured that nothing was omitted

⇒This is MECE in today's business word. MECE stands for "Mutually Exclusive and Collectively Exhaustive".

 Alexis de Tocqueville told us in his book" In 18 the century, this method spread over the range of where Rene Descartes or former analysts did not have the will to analyze."[4].Rene Descartes analyzed only specific fields but the Enlightenment age was the time when the people analyzed the new fields such as religion or politics in 18the century.

 Although it might be kind of the Anti-intellectualism, we can confirm that the Enlightment thought has been taken root in the United States. Alexis de Tocqueville mentioned in his book that with respect to the method of Rene Descartes, it is not thought in school but it naturally let the people learn such method[5].( Alexis de Tocqueville thinks that it is because of the democracy but I will discuss the reason why another time).

2.If you want to be promoted, you will need to explain the meaning of the existence

 As the fourth method of Rene Descartes is kind of MECE, we can see that today's business world is strongly affected by Enlightment thought. If you want it or not, we are scheduled to learn it.

 In other word, the result of hard competition is that we will learn just such thought. Although we cannot conclude whether this is bad thing or not, we can recognize that the contemporary world is as such.

 For example, there is a book called" The persons who are promoted don’t care their personnel assessment. [6]”. The author of this book is a HR consultant who has being contacting with wide range of persons.  He insists that the persons who are promoted have the answers of whys with thier originality [7]. If you want to be promoted, you will need to face those questions of why in good faith. Although, in Japan, you need to read between the lines which leads to the limit of asking "why", such limit will disappear soon. This example shows us also that Enlightment thought strongly affects the contemporary world.

 I think the next discussion will be “how further we will need to explain when we are asked "why?" considering above. I would like to discuss it next time.

 

References;

[1] Alexis de Tocqueville(translated by Reiji, Matsumoto), America no Democuraci( Dainikan (Jyou),[Democracy in America], P64, Iwanami Bunko, 2014

Amazon CAPTCHA

[2]P18 of[1] 

[3]Rene Descartes(translated by Keiko Tanigawa) , Houhou Jyosetsu, [Discourse on the Method], P28, P29, Iwanami Bunko, 2008.

www.amazon.co.jp

[4]P21 of[1]

[5]P18 of [1]

[6]Yoshihiro, Hirayasu, Shutsuse Suru Hito Wa Jinji Hyouka Wo Kinisinai [The persons who are promoted don't  care their personel assesment.], Nikkei Shibunusha, 2014

https://www.amazon.co.jp/出世する人は人事評価を気にしない-日経プレミアシリーズ-平康-慶浩/dp/4532262658/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1503842894&sr=1-1&keywords=出世する人は人事評価を気にしない

[7] P113 of [6]

グローバリゼーションと啓蒙主義(2)

 前回(グローバリゼーションと啓蒙主義(1) - すべての会社員を支援するブログ)、啓蒙主義が18世紀途絶えず生き続け、現代においてグローバルに普及していることを説明しました。この現象が行きつく世界を考えたいと思います。

 結論からいうと、前にも書きましたが、世界中どこもかしこもアメリカ合衆国のようになるのだと推測しています。完全ではないですが、かなり近い状態になるのではないかと思います。その理由は、アメリカ合衆国は、啓蒙思想が根付いている国だからです。

1.行きつく世界がアメリカ合衆国だと思う理由

 トクヴィルという人が「アメリカのデモクラシー」という本を19世紀中頃に出しています。この本は、トクヴィルがアメリカを視察し、民主主義国について分析した本と言われています。読んでいただくとわかりますが、この本で描かれているアメリカ人の特色というのは、本質的には、今のそれとほとんど変わっていないです。

 たとえば、トクヴィルの指摘しているものの一つに、アメリカ人は、人間の無限の可能性の観念が吹きこまれているというのがあります[1]。これは、日本人にはわかりにくいかもしれませんが、要するにどんなに人間にも無限の可能性があるという考え方だと思います。我々日本人は、盛者必衰の概念が吹き込まれていますが、アメリカ人にはそのような考え方は基本的には通じない概念であることは、何人かのアメリカ人と話してみれば明らかでしょう。

 この本において書かれていることで、指摘したい特色の一つに、アメリカ人は、デカルトを学ばずとも、みなデカルトの分析方法を身につけるというものでした。[2]

 デカルトの分析方法というのは、『方法序説』という本にまとめられています。この本は、一般的には、「われ思うゆえにわれあり」が有名ですが、もともとは、デカルトのものごとの分析方法を論じているものです。デカルトは、以下の手法でどんな難しい問題でも解ける!と豪語しました。その方法は4つあります[3]。ビジネス用語的に説明してみたいと思います。

 第一は、明証的に真であると認められるどんなことも真として受け入れない。

 ⇒「本当にそうなの?」と突き詰めて、真実だと思うものだけ、信じる。ビジネス用語でいうとトヨタの三現主義「現地、現物、現実」というところでしょうか。現場でなにが起こっているかきっちり情報を得ていないと混乱するということはよくあると思います。

 第二は、課題をできる限り小さく分割する、第三は、分割して単純でわかりやすいもの、手をつけやすいものからから解いて積み上げていく。

 ⇒第二と弟三の手法は若干重なるところがあります。着手小局、着眼大局や千里の道も一歩からともいいますが、一歩一歩着実にわかるところを分析するという趣旨だと思います。

 第四は、すべての場合にかんぜんな枚挙と全体に渡る見直しをして、なにを見落とさなかったと確信する。

 ⇒要するにいまのビジネス用語でいうところのMECEです。MECEとは、 Mutually Exclusive and Collectively Exhaustiveの略で、要するに重複なく・漏れなくという意味です。

 トクヴィルの言葉を借りると、「18世紀になると突然に、デカルトとその先駆者が思いもよらなかったほど広く、また彼ら自身があえてそこまで広げるのを拒んだ領域にまで適用されるように」なりました[4]。デカルトは分析の主体を特定の分野に限定していましたが、分析の対象を宗教、政治に向けたのがまさしく啓蒙思想の時代といわれる18世紀だと思います。

 アメリカ独特の反知性主義にも若干重なるところもありますが、このようにアメリカは、伝統的に啓蒙思想が根付いています。トクヴィルに言わせると、デカルト的な考え方について、アメリカの教育に仕組まれているかというとそいうわけではなく、自然に精神がそのように向かわせるということだそうです[5](トクヴィルは、根付いた理由として民主主義をあげていますが、啓蒙思想が根付いているの理由は別途機会あれば考えたいと思います)。

2.出世したければ、存在意義を示す必要がある

 デカルトの第四番目がMECEであることに象徴されるように、現代のビジネスがいかに啓蒙思想に影響を受けているかがわかるがよくわかるかと思います。グローバリゼーションを経て、このようなデカルト的な考え方をいつまにか身につける運命になっているのです。

 すなわち、毎日毎日働いて、いろいろな競争を経たうえで身につけるのが、この発想なのです。それがいいか悪いかは、それぞれの判断なのでしょうが、それがどんどん進んでいるのが現代なのです。

 たとえば、「出世する人は人事評価を気にしない」という本[6]があります。この著者は、人事コンサルタントとして、あるゆるパターンの社員と接したことがあるようなのですが、この本でも、役員に出世する人というのの特色として、あらゆる「なぜ」という問いに対して自分なりの答えを持っている人だそうです[7]。もし出世したい・成功したければければ、もろもろの「なんで」という質問に対して、真摯に取り組む必要があるということです。日本の保守的な企業においては、「空気」を読むことも必要なので、なぜと問い続けていくのには、限界があることもあるのですが、そのような限界もいずれなくなるでしょう。出世する人間を見ていても、啓蒙思想が広がっていることがよくわかるかと思います。

  そうすると、では、「なぜ」と言われた時に「どの程度理由を説明する必要があるのか」というのが次のテーマになるのではないかと思います。それについて次回検討したいと思います。

出典

 [1]トクヴィル著(松本礼二訳)『アメリカのデモクラシー (第2巻上)』64頁(岩波文庫、2014年)

Amazon CAPTCHA

[2]トクヴィル・前掲注[1]18頁

[3]デカルト著(谷川多佳子訳)「方法序説」28頁、29頁(岩波文庫、2008年)

www.amazon.co.jp

[4]トクヴィル・前掲注[1]21頁

[5]トクヴィル・前掲注[1]18頁

[6]平康慶浩著『出世する人は人事評価を気にしない』(日本経済新聞社、2014年)

 

https://www.amazon.co.jp/出世する人は人事評価を気にしない-日経プレミアシリーズ-平康-慶浩/dp/4532262658/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1503842894&sr=1-1&keywords=出世する人は人事評価を気にしない

[7]平康慶浩・前掲注[6]113頁

グローバリゼーションと啓蒙主義(1)

グローバリゼーションについて考えたいと思います。

グローバリゼーションをどう捉えるかによって、ビジネスマンにとって将来がだいぶ変わってくると思います。

そもそもグローバリゼーションとは、何かといえば、単に経済圏が地球規模になったということではないと思います。そのような結果として、「なぜ必要なのか」、「なぜ存在するのか」というのが、ただひたすら説明が求められるというものだと思います。そして、それがうまく説明できないと淘汰されてしまうというのが、グローバリゼーションなのだととらえています。

顕著な例でいえばAmazonでしょう。アメリカで生まれたサービスであるAmazonでは、あらゆるものが買えるようになりました。本をはじめ、雑貨品を取りそろえることができます。アメリカで生まれたサービスによって、本・雑貨品を取り扱う日本の小売店は、売上が減少し、厳しい経営環境に立たされています。なぜ、Amazonではなくその小売店で買う必要があるのかが問われてしまうのです。

そういうことが世界各地で起きています。私は、これは単にインターネットが発達した、ということが理由ではなく、もう少し、遡って検討しなくてはならないと思っています。その一つが啓蒙主義です。実は、今、足元でもろもろ見えている競争の激化は、この啓蒙主義に由来するのではないかと考えています。

啓蒙主義とは、そもそもなんでしょうか。要するに、今のビジネス用語でいうと、見える化です。

見える化とは、トヨタの有名な業務プロセスです。問題点を誰でも見えるようにして、業務改善を図るというものです。トヨタ独自のような気もしていましたが、これも啓蒙主義のひとつなのではないかと思います。 

啓蒙主義の一般的な定義は、 「啓蒙時代」とも呼ばれる17世紀~18世紀ヨーロッパで広まった、神学に代表される旧来の伝統や権威を理性のもとに批判し、民衆を啓蒙しようする考え方[1]です。一般的には、18世紀ぐらいに終わっている思想ととらえられているらしいのですが、実はまだ続いているのではないかと思います。その具体例のひとつが、トヨタの業務プロセスの「見える化」なのではないかと考えています。

啓蒙思想というのは、光で照らして、一般大衆に見せるという考え方です。「見える化」も同じで、隠れがちな社内の問題点を明るみにして、問題点をなくしていき、業務を改善していくというものです。本質は二つともかわらず、啓蒙思想というのは、現代風にいえば、あらゆる社会の問題点を大衆に「見える化」し、社会変革を促したと言えるでしょう。

この考え方がいろいろな歴史を経て、300年ぐらいかけて、息途絶えることなく世界に普及を続けているのが現代なのだと思います。

先ほどamazonの例を出しましたが、常に存在意義を突きつけられるというのは、働いている人にとって身近に感じていることなのではないかと思います。たとえば、日本においてはかつては弁護士の試験に合格すれば、安泰でした。しかし今では、インターネットが普及して、誰でも気軽に法律の解釈が出来るようになり、以前であれば、時間給を払って相談していたところを自分である程度調べられるようになっています。それでも日本においては、法律の解釈は弁護士の専売特許なので、より確実性を担保するのであれば、弁護士相談はせざるをえないですが、相談の数は減っていると思います。難しい試験を受かっただけでは存在理由を説明できず、それに加えてどういうアドバイスが出来るかなど'なぜ'その弁護士に相談するのかその意義を見出せないと職業として弁護士は成り立たなくなってしまっているのです。

なぜか?というのが非常に強い武器になっています。そしてどこに行きつくのかというのを次回検討したいと思います。その究極的な姿がアメリカなのではないかと思います。それについては次回考えたいと思います。

 出典:

[1]啓蒙主義とは - 日本語表現辞典 Weblio辞書

Globalization and Enlightenment thought(1)

 This time I would like to discuss the meaning of the globalization.
 What is the globalization?
 I think it is not simply the matter of that the range of the economic activity became global. You need to explain all the things the reason why it exists or why it needs to be existing because of the fact that the economic activities became global. And if you cannot explain that, such thing cannot exist anymore.
 For example, the Amazon which is the service born in the United States allows us to buy almost anything in Japan: beginning from books to daily necessities. The business environment of the retail shops and book stores in Japan which treat such things became severe because of the service born in the United States. We need to explain why you need to buy such things in such retail shops, not Amazon.
 Such phenomenon happens all over the world. I think we need to think of this fact from, not just the point of view of the development of the internet. We need to think of this fact by going back in the past. That is Enlightment thought. I think the recent severe competition is caused from Enlightment thought.
 What is Enlightment thought? Enlightment thought can be explained by "Mierukua (meaning the achievement of the transparence)" in Today's business word.
Mieruka is a famous working process in Toyota. It is the process which enlightens the problem in the workplace to everyone in order to improve the working process. I thought this working process originates from Toyota but now I think that Mieruka is one of Enlightment thought.
 The general definition of Enlightment thought is that it is marked by an emphasis on the scientific method and reductionism along with increased questioning of religious orthodoxy. The intellectual and philosophical movement of the Enlightment thought was dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century [1]. Generally, this movement was ended at 18th century but I think Enlightment thought is still alive. One of the examples of that is "Mieruka" in Toyota's working process.
 Enlightment thought is the thought that everyone can see the fact by achieving the transparency of social problem of those days. The Mieruka is same as it. By Mieruka, we can see the problem which tends to be concealed, solve the problem and improve the working process. The essence of the two is the same. In today's word, Enlightment thought can be explained as the phenomenon that urges the revolution to society by Mieruka of the social problem. 
 I think we can explain that the contemporary world is the place where Enlightment thought has been spreading over the world in almost 300 years.
 I referred to the example of Amazon as above but I think the confrontation of a self- existence is very familiar to many workers in contemporary world. Another example will be that, in Japan, there were days when people can be guaranteed their future income by just passing the examination of a Japanese lawyer. But nowadays, we can search legal analysis by internet so we don't always need to consult with a lawyer. Off course, the legal advice is only permitted to lawyers in Japan but I think the numbers of legal consultation is decreasing. Just passing the difficult examinations not sufficient to show why you exist as a lawyer
 "Why?" became the strong weapon of anything.We would like to discuss where we are going. Ultimate stage can be seen in the United State. I will discuss it further next time.

References:

[1]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Age_of_Enlightenment

 

 


I think we can explain that the contemporary world is the place where the Enlightment thought has been spreading over the world in almost 200 years from 18th century.
I referred to the example of Amazon as above but I think the confrontation of a self- existence is very familiar to many workers in contemporary world. Another example will be that, in Japan, there were days when people can be guaranteed their future income by just passing the examination of a Japanese lawyer. But nowadays, we can search legal analysis by internet so we don't always need to consult with a lawyer. Off course, the legal advice is only permitted to lawyers in Japan but I think the numbers of legal consultation is decreasing. Just passing the difficult examinations not sufficient to show why you exist as a lawyer
"Why?" became the strong weapon of anything.
We would like to discuss where we are going. Ultimate stage can be seen in the United State. I will discuss it further next time.

References:

[1]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Age_of_Enlightenment

 

How to treat "Crusher Boss"(3)

This time, I would like to discuss the Crusher Boss in history.

Who would be the most famous Crusher Boss in Japanese history? I will choose Oda Nobunaga.

I feel sorry for the people who are funs of Oda Nobunaga and I admit his work he had done in his lifetime but I think there is high possibility that he had the characteristic of Crusher Boss※.

※The definition of the Crusher Boss is rather vague so I don't think it will clearly determined the character of the Crusher Boss such as " he is the Crusher Boss !". I think it depends on the percentage of the character. 

 

He had been betrayed by Asai Nagamasa, Araki Murashige and finally he was killed by Mitsuhide Akechi who had been his subordinate. He was good at thinking rationally but is not able to think of others' feelings.

I think it is very interesting that if you watch the drama or novels of Oda Nobunaga, there are subordinates of Oda Nobunaga who survived and who couldn't survive.

This time, I will try to think of the treatment of Crusher boss by analyzing above historical fact.

It might be a cliché but I would like to choose Ieyasu Tokugawa and Hideyoshi Toyotomi for the example of who had succeeded to survive from the Crusher Boss. Before that, I would like to check briefly the life of Nobunaga Oda.

1.The life of Nobunaga Oda

Oda Nobunaga(1534 –1582) was a powerful Daimyō of Japan in the late 16th century who attempted to unify Japan during the late Sengoku period. During his later life, Nobunaga was widely known for most brutal suppression of determined opponents, eliminating those who, by principle, refused to cooperate or yield to his demands. He was both a skilled ruler and keen businessman, promoting economic reform. He was killed when his subordinate Akashi Mitsuhide rebelled against him at Honnō-ji. The administration of Nobunaga is succeeded to Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu who was the founder of Edo shogunate (1603-1867). [1]

  1. The person who survived: Tokugawa Ieyasu

I want to mention Tokugawa Ieyasu first for the subordinates of Oda Nobunaga who successfully survived.

(1)Iron sprit

Ieyasu who opened the Edo shogunate was instructed to kill his son by Nobunaga and did so by ordering him hara-kiri [2]. Generally speaking, if you are in the situation where you need to kill your child, you will go insane.  For example, Chōsokabe Motochika who had succeed to control over the Shikoku Irand in the same era was not able to work like he used to when his son happened to be killed by the Hideyoshi's policy which led his clan to be deteriorated. But Ieyasu was not. I think Ieyasu had iron sprit which recovers his difficult situation.

(2)The work does not overlap the one of Crusher Boss

Tokugawa Ieyasu and Oda Nobunaga were connected by, so-called, "Kiyosu Domei (Kiyosu Alliance)” The relationship was started as an alliance but in the last stage, it became as a boss and a subordinate. Roughly speaking, I think Kioyosu Alliance was the agreement in which Ode Nobunaga conquers the west and Ieyasu goes to east from the region which is now Aichi Prefecture.

There is a situation which, although most of the persons have been crushed, few persons were exempt from the Crusher Boss's attack. Although it might seem that there is no reason, I think it is simply caused from the fact that the work which such subordinate covers might not just overlap the work of the Crusher Boss. 

In addition to above alliance which determined who goes west or east, Nobunaga sticks to work for establishing the grand design of Japan after the Sengoku era. I think Nobunaga had a plan to conquer Ming dynasty like Qing dynasty did in the same era and start activities overseas. Such work did not overlap Ieyasu's one.

On the other hand, my opinion is that Akechi Mitsuhide overlapped such work.

  1. The person who survive: Toyotomi Hideyoshi

Hideyoshi had also some characteristic above (1)(2). He had below in addition to that.

(1) Concealing his ability

Crusher Boss has desire to be recognized his or her outstanding ability from others. If a subordinate fight with the Crusher Boss in respect of the ability, there is high possibility that the subordinate will be crushed. With regard to this aspect, Hediyoshi was brightest person.

Hideyoshi concealed his abiity from Nobunaga. For example, he led to Nobunaga to Chūgoku region as a Total Commander, saying "Please send us reinforcements since I don't have any confident to conquer Chūgoku region"[3]

Contrast to that, Mitsuhide couldn't do that like Hideyoshi when he had to struggle to conquer Shikoku Region, in which is said turned out to be a murder in Honnō-ji. He couldn't recognized his ability correctly and simply ask Nobunaga for help.

(2) Nobunaga is human beings

Hideyoshi adopted Nobunaga's fourth son since he had no children. It is widely known that this is because how wide the region Hideyoshi conquest, it will belong to Nobunaga child so it will not be minus to Nobunaga who was very paranoid person [4].

When you need to contact with the Crusher Boss, sometime you feel that the Crusher boss is not human being but he or she is human being. These days, it is not realistic to adopt the Crusher Boss' child but there is a possibility of solution when you analyze the Crusher Boss from the view of, for example, father.

 

  1. Last

This time I raised two persons; Hideyoshi and Ieyasu. I think there are lots of examples in history which are useful to us. If you are trouble with the Crusher Boss, the novels of Shiba Ryōtarō, such as below, are recommended. 

Shiba Ryōtarō (1973)"Shinshi taikoki" Shinchousha

Shiba Ryōtarō (2002) "Haō no ie" Shinchousha

In his theory for Honno-ji incident, Aketchi Mitsuhide was neurosis. Although almost all historians deny this theory, I am in sympathy with Shiba's thought. The reason why I am in sympathy with this theory is because he has the experience of being employed before he became as a novelist. Although there are criticisms of Shiba Ryōtarō's vision of history, so called, "Shiba Shikan", his novels will stand close to the ones who need to be under the Crusher Boss.

 

References:

[1] Oda Nobunaga - Wikipedia

[2] Although my explanation might be rather rough, below books shows that it seems that it was caused from internal trouble in Ieyasu's clan. Anyhow, I think the fact that Ieyasu had iron spirit won't change.  

Taniguch Katuhiko (2007) "Nobunaga To Kieata Kashintachi” Chouoshinsho 

https://www.amazon.co.jp/信長と消えた家臣たち―失脚・粛清・謀反-中公新書-谷口-克広/dp/4121019075(*)I think it is not translated in English.

 

[3] I refer to 519 page of Shiba Ryōtarō (1965)"Kunitori monogatari" Shinchousha. I didn't have a chance to find out the actual letter.

https://www.amazon.co.jp/国盗り物語1-4巻完結セット-司馬遼太郎/dp/B00RTWPSSG/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1497079358&sr=1-1&keywords=司馬遼太郎+くにとりものがたり

(*) It seems it is not translated in English

[4] Hashiba Hidekatsu - Wikipedia

(*) The back ground of why Hideyoshi adopted Nobunaga's song is not translated in English 

[5] Amazon CAPTCHA

Amazon CAPTCHA

(*)I think it is not translated in English.

[6] Amazon CAPTCHA

Amazon CAPTCHA

(*)I think it is not translated in English.