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グローバリゼーションと啓蒙主義(1)

グローバリゼーションについて考えたいと思います。

グローバリゼーションをどう捉えるかによって、ビジネスマンにとって将来がだいぶ変わってくると思います。

そもそもグローバリゼーションとは、何かといえば、単に経済圏が地球規模になったということではないと思います。そのような結果として、「なぜ必要なのか」、「なぜ存在するのか」というのが、ただひたすら説明が求められるというものだと思います。そして、それがうまく説明できないと淘汰されてしまうというのが、グローバリゼーションなのだととらえています。

顕著な例でいえばAmazonでしょう。アメリカで生まれたサービスであるAmazonでは、あらゆるものが買えるようになりました。本をはじめ、雑貨品を取りそろえることができます。アメリカで生まれたサービスによって、本・雑貨品を取り扱う日本の小売店は、売上が減少し、厳しい経営環境に立たされています。なぜ、Amazonではなくその小売店で買う必要があるのかが問われてしまうのです。

そういうことが世界各地で起きています。私は、これは単にインターネットが発達した、ということが理由ではなく、もう少し、遡って検討しなくてはならないと思っています。その一つが啓蒙主義です。実は、今、足元でもろもろ見えている競争の激化は、この啓蒙主義に由来するのではないかと考えています。

啓蒙主義とは、そもそもなんでしょうか。要するに、今のビジネス用語でいうと、見える化です。

見える化とは、トヨタの有名な業務プロセスです。問題点を誰でも見えるようにして、業務改善を図るというものです。トヨタ独自のような気もしていましたが、これも啓蒙主義のひとつなのではないかと思います。 

啓蒙主義の一般的な定義は、 「啓蒙時代」とも呼ばれる17世紀~18世紀ヨーロッパで広まった、神学に代表される旧来の伝統や権威を理性のもとに批判し、民衆を啓蒙しようする考え方[1]です。一般的には、18世紀ぐらいに終わっている思想ととらえられているらしいのですが、実はまだ続いているのではないかと思います。その具体例のひとつが、トヨタの業務プロセスの「見える化」なのではないかと考えています。

啓蒙思想というのは、光で照らして、一般大衆に見せるという考え方です。「見える化」も同じで、隠れがちな社内の問題点を明るみにして、問題点をなくしていき、業務を改善していくというものです。本質は二つともかわらず、啓蒙思想というのは、現代風にいえば、あらゆる社会の問題点を大衆に「見える化」し、社会変革を促したと言えるでしょう。

この考え方がいろいろな歴史を経て、300年ぐらいかけて、息途絶えることなく世界に普及を続けているのが現代なのだと思います。

先ほどamazonの例を出しましたが、常に存在意義を突きつけられるというのは、働いている人にとって身近に感じていることなのではないかと思います。たとえば、日本においてはかつては弁護士の試験に合格すれば、安泰でした。しかし今では、インターネットが普及して、誰でも気軽に法律の解釈が出来るようになり、以前であれば、時間給を払って相談していたところを自分である程度調べられるようになっています。それでも日本においては、法律の解釈は弁護士の専売特許なので、より確実性を担保するのであれば、弁護士相談はせざるをえないですが、相談の数は減っていると思います。難しい試験を受かっただけでは存在理由を説明できず、それに加えてどういうアドバイスが出来るかなど'なぜ'その弁護士に相談するのかその意義を見出せないと職業として弁護士は成り立たなくなってしまっているのです。

なぜか?というのが非常に強い武器になっています。そしてどこに行きつくのかというのを次回検討したいと思います。その究極的な姿がアメリカなのではないかと思います。それについては次回考えたいと思います。

 出典:

[1]啓蒙主義とは - 日本語表現辞典 Weblio辞書

Globalization and Enlightenment thought(1)

 This time I would like to discuss the meaning of the globalization.
 What is the globalization?
 I think it is not simply the matter of that the range of the economic activity became global. You need to explain all the things the reason why it exists or why it needs to be existing because of the fact that the economic activities became global. And if you cannot explain that, such thing cannot exist anymore.
 For example, the Amazon which is the service born in the United States allows us to buy almost anything in Japan: beginning from books to daily necessities. The business environment of the retail shops and book stores in Japan which treat such things became severe because of the service born in the United States. We need to explain why you need to buy such things in such retail shops, not Amazon.
 Such phenomenon happens all over the world. I think we need to think of this fact from, not just the point of view of the development of the internet. We need to think of this fact by going back in the past. That is Enlightment thought. I think the recent severe competition is caused from Enlightment thought.
 What is Enlightment thought? Enlightment thought can be explained by "Mierukua (meaning the achievement of the transparence)" in Today's business word.
Mieruka is a famous working process in Toyota. It is the process which enlightens the problem in the workplace to everyone in order to improve the working process. I thought this working process originates from Toyota but now I think that Mieruka is one of Enlightment thought.
 The general definition of Enlightment thought is that it is marked by an emphasis on the scientific method and reductionism along with increased questioning of religious orthodoxy. The intellectual and philosophical movement of the Enlightment thought was dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century [1]. Generally, this movement was ended at 18th century but I think Enlightment thought is still alive. One of the examples of that is "Mieruka" in Toyota's working process.
 Enlightment thought is the thought that everyone can see the fact by achieving the transparency of social problem of those days. The Mieruka is same as it. By Mieruka, we can see the problem which tends to be concealed, solve the problem and improve the working process. The essence of the two is the same. In today's word, Enlightment thought can be explained as the phenomenon that urges the revolution to society by Mieruka of the social problem. 
 I think we can explain that the contemporary world is the place where Enlightment thought has been spreading over the world in almost 300 years.
 I referred to the example of Amazon as above but I think the confrontation of a self- existence is very familiar to many workers in contemporary world. Another example will be that, in Japan, there were days when people can be guaranteed their future income by just passing the examination of a Japanese lawyer. But nowadays, we can search legal analysis by internet so we don't always need to consult with a lawyer. Off course, the legal advice is only permitted to lawyers in Japan but I think the numbers of legal consultation is decreasing. Just passing the difficult examinations not sufficient to show why you exist as a lawyer
 "Why?" became the strong weapon of anything.We would like to discuss where we are going. Ultimate stage can be seen in the United State. I will discuss it further next time.

References:

[1]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Age_of_Enlightenment

 

 


I think we can explain that the contemporary world is the place where the Enlightment thought has been spreading over the world in almost 200 years from 18th century.
I referred to the example of Amazon as above but I think the confrontation of a self- existence is very familiar to many workers in contemporary world. Another example will be that, in Japan, there were days when people can be guaranteed their future income by just passing the examination of a Japanese lawyer. But nowadays, we can search legal analysis by internet so we don't always need to consult with a lawyer. Off course, the legal advice is only permitted to lawyers in Japan but I think the numbers of legal consultation is decreasing. Just passing the difficult examinations not sufficient to show why you exist as a lawyer
"Why?" became the strong weapon of anything.
We would like to discuss where we are going. Ultimate stage can be seen in the United State. I will discuss it further next time.

References:

[1]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Age_of_Enlightenment

 

How to treat "Crusher Boss"(3)

This time, I would like to discuss the Crusher Boss in history.

Who would be the most famous Crusher Boss in Japanese history? I will choose Oda Nobunaga.

I feel sorry for the people who are funs of Oda Nobunaga and I admit his work he had done in his lifetime but I think there is high possibility that he had the characteristic of Crusher Boss※.

※The definition of the Crusher Boss is rather vague so I don't think it will clearly determined the character of the Crusher Boss such as " he is the Crusher Boss !". I think it depends on the percentage of the character. 

 

He had been betrayed by Asai Nagamasa, Araki Murashige and finally he was killed by Mitsuhide Akechi who had been his subordinate. He was good at thinking rationally but is not able to think of others' feelings.

I think it is very interesting that if you watch the drama or novels of Oda Nobunaga, there are subordinates of Oda Nobunaga who survived and who couldn't survive.

This time, I will try to think of the treatment of Crusher boss by analyzing above historical fact.

It might be a cliché but I would like to choose Ieyasu Tokugawa and Hideyoshi Toyotomi for the example of who had succeeded to survive from the Crusher Boss. Before that, I would like to check briefly the life of Nobunaga Oda.

1.The life of Nobunaga Oda

Oda Nobunaga(1534 –1582) was a powerful Daimyō of Japan in the late 16th century who attempted to unify Japan during the late Sengoku period. During his later life, Nobunaga was widely known for most brutal suppression of determined opponents, eliminating those who, by principle, refused to cooperate or yield to his demands. He was both a skilled ruler and keen businessman, promoting economic reform. He was killed when his subordinate Akashi Mitsuhide rebelled against him at Honnō-ji. The administration of Nobunaga is succeeded to Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu who was the founder of Edo shogunate (1603-1867). [1]

  1. The person who survived: Tokugawa Ieyasu

I want to mention Tokugawa Ieyasu first for the subordinates of Oda Nobunaga who successfully survived.

(1)Iron sprit

Ieyasu who opened the Edo shogunate was instructed to kill his son by Nobunaga and did so by ordering him hara-kiri [2]. Generally speaking, if you are in the situation where you need to kill your child, you will go insane.  For example, Chōsokabe Motochika who had succeed to control over the Shikoku Irand in the same era was not able to work like he used to when his son happened to be killed by the Hideyoshi's policy which led his clan to be deteriorated. But Ieyasu was not. I think Ieyasu had iron sprit which recovers his difficult situation.

(2)The work does not overlap the one of Crusher Boss

Tokugawa Ieyasu and Oda Nobunaga were connected by, so-called, "Kiyosu Domei (Kiyosu Alliance)” The relationship was started as an alliance but in the last stage, it became as a boss and a subordinate. Roughly speaking, I think Kioyosu Alliance was the agreement in which Ode Nobunaga conquers the west and Ieyasu goes to east from the region which is now Aichi Prefecture.

There is a situation which, although most of the persons have been crushed, few persons were exempt from the Crusher Boss's attack. Although it might seem that there is no reason, I think it is simply caused from the fact that the work which such subordinate covers might not just overlap the work of the Crusher Boss. 

In addition to above alliance which determined who goes west or east, Nobunaga sticks to work for establishing the grand design of Japan after the Sengoku era. I think Nobunaga had a plan to conquer Ming dynasty like Qing dynasty did in the same era and start activities overseas. Such work did not overlap Ieyasu's one.

On the other hand, my opinion is that Akechi Mitsuhide overlapped such work.

  1. The person who survive: Toyotomi Hideyoshi

Hideyoshi had also some characteristic above (1)(2). He had below in addition to that.

(1) Concealing his ability

Crusher Boss has desire to be recognized his or her outstanding ability from others. If a subordinate fight with the Crusher Boss in respect of the ability, there is high possibility that the subordinate will be crushed. With regard to this aspect, Hediyoshi was brightest person.

Hideyoshi concealed his abiity from Nobunaga. For example, he led to Nobunaga to Chūgoku region as a Total Commander, saying "Please send us reinforcements since I don't have any confident to conquer Chūgoku region"[3]

Contrast to that, Mitsuhide couldn't do that like Hideyoshi when he had to struggle to conquer Shikoku Region, in which is said turned out to be a murder in Honnō-ji. He couldn't recognized his ability correctly and simply ask Nobunaga for help.

(2) Nobunaga is human beings

Hideyoshi adopted Nobunaga's fourth son since he had no children. It is widely known that this is because how wide the region Hideyoshi conquest, it will belong to Nobunaga child so it will not be minus to Nobunaga who was very paranoid person [4].

When you need to contact with the Crusher Boss, sometime you feel that the Crusher boss is not human being but he or she is human being. These days, it is not realistic to adopt the Crusher Boss' child but there is a possibility of solution when you analyze the Crusher Boss from the view of, for example, father.

 

  1. Last

This time I raised two persons; Hideyoshi and Ieyasu. I think there are lots of examples in history which are useful to us. If you are trouble with the Crusher Boss, the novels of Shiba Ryōtarō, such as below, are recommended. 

Shiba Ryōtarō (1973)"Shinshi taikoki" Shinchousha

Shiba Ryōtarō (2002) "Haō no ie" Shinchousha

In his theory for Honno-ji incident, Aketchi Mitsuhide was neurosis. Although almost all historians deny this theory, I am in sympathy with Shiba's thought. The reason why I am in sympathy with this theory is because he has the experience of being employed before he became as a novelist. Although there are criticisms of Shiba Ryōtarō's vision of history, so called, "Shiba Shikan", his novels will stand close to the ones who need to be under the Crusher Boss.

 

References:

[1] Oda Nobunaga - Wikipedia

[2] Although my explanation might be rather rough, below books shows that it seems that it was caused from internal trouble in Ieyasu's clan. Anyhow, I think the fact that Ieyasu had iron spirit won't change.  

Taniguch Katuhiko (2007) "Nobunaga To Kieata Kashintachi” Chouoshinsho 

https://www.amazon.co.jp/信長と消えた家臣たち―失脚・粛清・謀反-中公新書-谷口-克広/dp/4121019075(*)I think it is not translated in English.

 

[3] I refer to 519 page of Shiba Ryōtarō (1965)"Kunitori monogatari" Shinchousha. I didn't have a chance to find out the actual letter.

https://www.amazon.co.jp/国盗り物語1-4巻完結セット-司馬遼太郎/dp/B00RTWPSSG/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1497079358&sr=1-1&keywords=司馬遼太郎+くにとりものがたり

(*) It seems it is not translated in English

[4] Hashiba Hidekatsu - Wikipedia

(*) The back ground of why Hideyoshi adopted Nobunaga's song is not translated in English 

[5] Amazon CAPTCHA

Amazon CAPTCHA

(*)I think it is not translated in English.

[6] Amazon CAPTCHA

Amazon CAPTCHA

(*)I think it is not translated in English. 

 

 

クラッシャー上司の実践的対応策(3)

今回は、歴史上のクラッシャー上司の話をしたいと思います。

日本史で有名なクラッシャー上司といったら私は織田信長をあげます。

織田信長を支持する人には申し訳ないですし、私自体その偉業を否定するつもりは全くないのですが、今で言うところクラッシャー上司の性格の確度が高かったのではないかと思います。

※クラッシャー上司の定義は、(どんな定義もそうですが)、ややあいまいで、この人はそうだ!と確定的に決まるのではなく、どの程度その要素があるかだと思います。

 

裏切りでいうと、浅井長政にはじまり、荒木村重の裏切り、最後は、部下の明智光秀に殺されてしまいます。合理的な思考ができるものの、人の気持ちを考えるのが苦手な人間だったようです。

 

織田信長関連の小説・ドラマを見ていると、不思議に思うことがあります。同じ時代に生きていたとしても、クラッシュしてしまう人とそうではない人に分られるというところです。

 

今回は、そこを分析して、クラッシャー上司に対する実践的な対応策を考えていきたいと思います。ベタではありますが、うまく生き残った人として、徳川家康豊臣秀吉をあげたいと思います。その前にまず信長の人生を簡単に振り返りたいと思います。

 

1.信長の人生

織田 信長(1534年-1582年)は、16世紀後半にかけて生きた戦国大名で、戦国時代に日本の統一に道筋をつけた人物です。人生後半で、彼の指示に従わなかった反対者への残虐性がよく知られています。彼は、統治ルール作り,ビジネス感覚も優れており、経済改革を推し進めました。しかし1582年6月21日、重臣・明智光秀に謀反を起こされ、本能寺で自害。信長の政権は、豊臣秀吉による豊臣政権、徳川家康が開いた江戸幕府(へと引き継がれていくことになります。[1]

2.うまく生き残った人~徳川家康

織田信長家臣でうまく生き残った人として、まずは徳川家康をあげます。私は以下二つの特色があると思います。

(1)もともと精神が図太い 

江戸幕府を開いた家康は、信長に自分の長男を切腹するように言われて、切腹させています[2]。どんな人であれ、自分の子供を殺さざるを得ない状況というのは、普通の人では心が折れてしまうと思います。たとえば、同時期に生きた四国の覇者、長宗我部元親は、秀吉の政策により、長男が死んでしまい、心が折れてしまい、長宗我部家衰退を招きましたが、家康にはそのようなことはなかったようです。よほど芯の強い人だったのでしょう。

(2)クラッシャー上司の仕事とバッティングしていない 

徳川家康織田信長は、清州同盟によって結ばれていました。当初は同盟関係でしたが、後半は主従関係に変わります。ざっくりいうと、清州同盟というのは、今でいうところ愛知県を中心にそこより東は、家康、そこより西は信長がせめるというものだと思います。

クラッシャー上司から、みんなやられるのに、たまにうまくやっている人がいるということがあると思います。理由がないようにも見えますが、そういう人は、単純にクラッシャー上司と仕事がかぶっていない可能性があると思います。

上述の西とか東の領土をどちらが攻めるかという観点以外でも、信長の仕事のこだわりの一つは、戦国時代を終わらせて、どのような国の形にするかグランドデザインを描くというところがあったと思います。織田信長は、同時期の清のように明を攻め、世界に進出しようと思っていたのではないかと思っているのですが、そういった国家戦略についても家康はかぶっていなかったと思います。

逆にこの部分でかぶってしまったのが、明智光秀なのではないかと思います。

3.うまく生き残った人~豊臣秀吉

もう一人は豊臣秀吉です。この人も政治的な天才だったと思い、上記の(1)(2)も兼ね備えますが、それに加えて以下もあると思います。

(1)能力をひけらかさない 

クラッシャー上司は、圧倒的に能力を持っていたことに他人に承認ほしいという欲望があります。そういう人に対して、部下が自分の方が能力あると戦ってしまうとクラッシュしてしまう可能性が高いと思います。この観点からうまく立ち回ったのは秀吉でしょう。

秀吉は織田信長に対して能力をひけらかさない人だったと思います。たとえば、「私めにはとても中国地方の無理なんで、信長様、援軍よろしくお願いします」みたいにうまくいって上司を総大将にして中国地方の攻略にまきこもうとしました[3]。

その点明智光秀は、四国攻め行き詰まってしまい、本能寺の変を起こしたという説もあrるようです。秀吉のように能力のないことを認めて、お願いしますみたいなことができなかったのでしょう。

(2) 所詮信長も人間だということがわかっていた

秀吉は、自分に子供がいないことを理由に信長の四男を養子にしています。これは、いくら秀吉が領土を増やしても、結局のところ信長の子供にいくのだから信長から猜疑心をもたれないというためにもらったようです[4]。

クラッシャー上司と接していると、この人は本当に人間なのだろうかと思ってしまうことがありますが、所詮同じ人間なのです。クラッシャー上司の子供を養子にするなんて方法は、現代ではありえませんが、その人も家族では父親であるとかそういった視線で分析すると良い解決策が思いつく可能性もあると思います。

4.最後に

今回は、徳川家康豊臣秀吉をあげましたが、歴史上の人たちの行動というのも参考になるものです。クラッシャー上司に悩んでいる人は、以下の司馬遼太郎の小説なんかを読むといいのかもしれません。

司馬遼太郎『新史太閤記』(新潮文庫、1973年)[5]

司馬遼太郎『覇王の家』(新潮文庫、2002年)[6]

司馬遼太郎明智光秀本能寺の変を起こした理由にノイローゼ説をあげています。歴史学者からはこの説は否定されていますが、私はこの説に共感を覚えます。司馬遼太郎も、小説家になる前にサラリーマンを経験しているからなのではないかと思います。司馬史観という批判もありますが、クラッシャー上司の下にいる人には寄り添える小説なのではないかと思います。

 

出典:

[1]織田信長 - Wikipedia

[2]ざっくりとした説明ですが、以下の本では、どちらかというと徳川家の内紛が原因のようです。いずれにせよ、徳川家康の芯の強さはかわらないと思います。

谷口克広『信長と消えた家臣たち―失脚・粛清・謀反 』(中公新書,2007年)

https://www.amazon.co.jp/信長と消えた家臣たち―失脚・粛清・謀反-中公新書-谷口-克広/dp/4121019075

[3]司馬遼太郎『国取り物語(四)』(新潮文庫,1971年)519ページを参考にしました。現存する手紙は見られていません。

https://www.amazon.co.jp/国盗り物語1-4巻完結セット-司馬遼太郎/dp/B00RTWPSSG/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1497079358&sr=1-1&keywords=司馬遼太郎+くにとりものがたり

[4]羽柴秀勝 - Wikipedia

[5] Amazon CAPTCHA

Amazon CAPTCHA

[6]Amazon CAPTCHA

Amazon CAPTCHA

 

クラッシャー上司の実践的対応策(2)

今回は、クラッシャー上司がどうやって発生するかを考えたいと思います。いくつか理由があると思います。

話がちょっと飛びますが、毎回ブログを英訳しようと考えており、前回も英語に訳しアップロードしています。前回の英語に訳して一番苦労したのはここの部分です。

 「上司の主張は実績や経験に裏打ちされた内容で、論理的には外見上正しいため、その内容自体への部下からの反論は非常に難しい。」

出典:クラッシャー上司 - Wikipedia

英語がネイティブの人なら「なんで反論できないの?反論できないなら、部下の言っていることが間違いなのではないか」と突っ込まれそうです。

そこで、どいういうシチュエーションか詳細説明したいと思います。以下のような感じじです。

(たとえば、営業部署で・・・)

クラッシャー上司「おい、君、私が言った例の提案は、A顧客にちゃんと提案できたかね?」

部下「す、すみません、足元、昨日ご報告申し上げた通り、B顧客のクレーム対応で精一杯で、A顧客の提案までできませんでした」

クラッシャー上司「君、営業部署の存在意義わかってる??顧客から収益あげなければ意味無いんだよ!クレーム対応なんて、なんの収益・評価につながらないのだから、ちゃんと私の指示されたとおりにうごいてもらわなければ困るよ!だいたい君は・・・」

みたいな会話だと思います。

B顧客のクレームで部下が対応しきれておらず、時間がないのであれば、それを可能にするのよう調整するのが上司の役目です。それをわざわざ部下を責めようとする理由はどこでしょうか。そこがわかれば、クラッシャー上司が生まれる理由がわかる気がします。

1.クラッシャー上司のそもそもの能力の高さ

おそらく、クラッシャー上司は、非常に能力の高い人なので、自分がプレーヤーだったときは、上記のようなシチュエーション(クレームがあった、業務トラブルがあった)であったとしても、うまくこなし、収益目標を達成できたのだと思われます。ただ、よくいわれているように、自分ができることが他人ができるとは限りません。そこを体得することがマネジメントになる前に学んでおくべきなのですが、そうならずに上司になってしまったということだと思います。

 

2.承認欲求

おそらく、能力の高いことをあらためて承認してほしいという欲求もあると思います。「私は圧倒的な能力があるのだ」というのを相手に責めることによって、確認するという方法をとっているというのも考えられます。目的に照らし合わせると、別に部下を責める必要はなく、その意図さえ伝われば、それでいいはずなのです。それでもあえて、責めるという(もしくは長時間にわたって責める)ということは、承認欲求が高い可能性は十分にあると思います。

 

3. 建設的な反論を受け入れられない

たとえば、このあとの会話で部下が最新の経営学かなにか記事を一生懸命読んでいて「クレームに適切に対応することで次につながり、最終的には会社の評価にもつながる」みたいなことを言ったとしたときに、クラッシャー上司は、どういう反応するかです。部下の主張も一面の真実ではあると思いますが、クラッシャー上司の特色としておそらく受け付けないでしょう。なぜ受け付けられないのでしょうか。それにもいくつか理由があると思います。

(1)建設的な議論を部下が働きかけてもその議論に対して勝ち負けで考えてしまう。

部下の方からすると、上述の意見は、会社のために、誰かは、やらなくてはならないクレームなり、雑事なりに対応する必要があり、そのことにクラッシャー上司に気付いてほしいという前向きな意見かと思います。しかし、部下からの意見を聞いて、新しい方法の解決手段を考えるということは、クラッシャー上司にとっては、「部下の意見に負けた」と思ってしまうところに問題があると考えます。

このことは、クラッシャー上司の中には表向きは、聞く姿勢を保っているというある意味賢い人もいて、本人も気づいていない可能性もあります。

「勝った・負けた」の話になってしまうので、部下からすると議論をする気が失せてしまうか、負けずぎらいの部下であれば、議論をしつづけますが、そういう部下が消耗戦になりやがてクラッシュされてしまうリスクがあると考えます。

(2)日本の教育システム

日本の場合、そもそも社会人になる前の教育システムが、ある一部分の能力しか測りません。一般的に優秀な大学を出ている人というのは、ある一定の科目を効率的に勉強できた人です。人格とか社会にどの程度貢献する可能性があるかというのは、(最近ではAO入試がでてきたとは言え)、はからずとも、そこそこ優秀な大学に入れるのです。

一般的には、この枠組みの過程で、なんらかの苦労をして、副次的な作用として、いろいろ学んでいくというのが一般的です。たとえば、受験勉強をしていて、数学がわからない、国語がわからない、暗記ができないといって、もんもんと悩んで、勉強とは別のことをしてみたり、それで親に怒られた、苦労した・・・みたいな経験を経ることにより、人間性の幅をのばすというのが日本の教育システムなのだと思います。

ただ、これは明示的にはどこにも書いていません。そのような苦労をまったくせずに、効率的に勉強ができる、ある意味能力の高い人たちがいます。そいう人たちは、社会人になるまで挫折せず、社会人になるにあたってもある程度下駄をはかせてもらって社会人になるのです。したがって、人間としてかならずしも成長していない人がそのまま企業に就職してくるのです。

そういう人が、企業に就職し、その業種がとくに保守的な業種だったりとすると、受験で問われているような、既存のもの・出来上がった枠組みを着実にこなす能力が十分にあれば、クラッシャー上司でもある程度は出世する仕組みになっていると私は考えます。たまたま、運がよかったんだよと教えてもらうことはなく、自分の実力だと勘違いしてしまうのです。

自分の実力でここまで上がってきたんだ、自分が常に正しいと勘違いしてしまうとなかなか建設的な意見は受け入れられないでしょう。

 

上記以外にも、日本は、集団主義の国だというのもあったり、日本の組織環境は、ジョブ型ではないとかいろいろありますが、長々してしまうのでそれは別の機会で議論したいと思います。

 今回は、クラッシャー上司が発生する要因をまとめてみました。クラッシャー上司というのは、ある一部分の能力がたまたま学校、会社で認められただけだと思います。したがって他人の感情や、そもそも能力のない人がどのように考えているかはまったくわからないですし、知ろうとすらしなくても、そのまま上司になってしまった、というパターンの人だと思います。発生要因を考えましたが、要因さえわかれば、その要因に即した対応策を考えればいいのです。そのあたりは、次回以降に議論したいと思います。

How to treat the "Crusher Boss"(2)

This time, I would like to discuss why the Crusher Boss occurs. I think there are several reasons.

Let me start with the thing which you might think is off the topic. Having decided to translate my article into English in every article, I also had translated my last article and found out that it was most difficult to translate into English below wording.

"Because the appearance of the opinion of the Crusher Boss seems to be very logical and based on their personal work experience, it will be very difficult for their subordinate to object to his or her argument.”

 ( Reference: クラッシャー上司 - Wikipedia(Japanese))

I can assume that the native speaker of English will ask “Why the subordinate cannot object to the Crusher Boss's opinion? If the subordinate cannot object to it, don't you think that the subordinate is not right?"

Therefore, I would like to first discuss this situation. The situation will be like as follows;

(In the sales division in Japanese Company・・・)

Crusher Boss:" Hey you, have you provided the proposal document to client A?"

Subordinate:"Uh, I am sorry. I had no chance since I need to respond to client B's claim.

Crusher Boss: "Do you realize the existence of our sales division!? We don't have any meaning if we don't sale anything. Responding claim doesn’t help selling or our evaluation, you have to do as I have told you! First and foremost・・・"

This kind of conversation takes place in the office with the Crusher Boss.

If the subordinate has no time since he or she needs to respond to the claim of client B, it is the role of boss to arrange it. Why the Crusher Boss will blame to the subordinate? I think the reason for this will explain how the Crusher Boss will occur.

1. The high ability of the Crusher Boss

I think when the Crusher Boss needed to face to such situation (such as the customer's claim or the trouble) above as a player; he will handle it correctly and achieve the goal since the Crusher Boss has the high ability to work. As it has been pointed out a lot, it is not always the case where the subordinate has the same ability of the Crusher Boss. The Crusher Boss needed to know it before the Crusher Boss work as a boss but it happened not.

 

  1. The desire to be recognized

I think the Crusher Boss wants to be recognized his high ability. We can assume that by blaming their subordinate, the Crusher Boss can confirm “I have definite ability". Thinking the purpose of business, you don't have to blame someone for that purpose, since you just only explain such thing to their subordinates. But considering the blame or the long period of blame, I think that there is a high possibility that such desire of recognition exits.

 

  1. The Crusher Boss cannot accept the constructive objection 

For example, after above conversation, what will happen to Crusher Boss when the subordinate pointed out that treating claims from customer properly will contribute to company's profit as a whole, eagerly studying the new management strategy? Although such suggestion is partially correct, the Crusher Boss will not accept such thought. Why the Crusher Boss cannot accept that? These have also several reasons.

 (1)The Crusher Boss recognizes such discussion as a fight which will result the winner and loser with respect to the view of the Crusher Boss.

With respect to the side of the subordinate, he or she thinks that someone has to respond to such claim or trouble, it is reasonable to think such opinion is constructive but the Crusher Boss will think he is loser when he accept his subordinate's opinion and think of new solution.

There is a possibility that the Crusher Boss is not aware of this because in the surface, some smart boss seeks for the open discussion.

When discussion, it will be a fight so some subordinate give up for such discussion or some subordinate who hates to lose will chose to fight but it might turned out be exhaustion to and "crush" to such subordinate.

(2) Japanese Education System

In Japan, for entering the society, the measurement of the students is limited. The person who has graduated the superior collage in Japan is the person who had success to complete studying only the subjects. Without the measuring the possibility to contribution to the society or personality, he or she can graduate such superior collage (although recently there is AO examination (*1)).

Generally speaking, by studying subjects through this Japanese education system, the students will struggle to learn lots of thing other than just learning such subject. For example, difficult math, difficult Japanese language(*2) will cause the students to suffer or skip studying which will be scolded by their parents.....Through such experience, the students will grow with a wide view.

But this is not the kind of thing which is written down clearly. So there are exceptional cases where some students who have high ability will not struggle to learn such subjects. Such students will enter into society without breakdown and with inflation of their ability. Therefore, there is a risk that some students who entire into a society are not grown up.

In my opinion such person with high abilities acquired through Japanese education system can be promoted in a conservative company in which the business model has almost no diversity.

No Japanese will tell the Crusher Boss's success was caused from luck. The Crusher Boss misunderstands his or her achieivment was caused from only his or her ability. 

 Although such opinion might be constructive, to accept other opinions  is very difficult for a person who thinks he or she is always right and believes his or her ability.

 

There are other reasons than above such as the work of Japanese is affected by the gropu in which such person belongs to or Japanese is a collectivism people. I would like to discuss other reasons further in the near future.

 

In summary for this time, I wrote the reasons of the occurrence of the Crusher Boss. They are lucky since, although they don't know or try to know other people's feelings especially who are not highly skilled, they are promoted for their limited range of skill. If you found out the reasons, you will know how to treat them. I would like to discuss this next time.

 

 (*1) AO stands for Admission Office.  The is the examination method for college in which the college will look into the characteristic of the student. It is different from the normal examination in Japan.

(*2) Japanese subject is difficult for lots of Japanese student since they need to acquire high skill to analyze the Japanese reading.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How to treat the"Crusher Boss"(1)

I also have happened to meet the “Crusher Boss" in the past.  There were times when such people are my boss or my colleague. The "Crusher Boss" seems to be defined generally as follows;

・He or she will blame for a long time the miss of the person who work under him or her

・Because the appearance of the opinion of the Crusher Boss seems to be very logical and based on their personal work experience, it will be very difficult for their subordinate to object to his or her argument. If the subordinate objects to the Crusher Boss argument, the Crusher Boss will eagerly deny such opinion and pushes the Crusher Boss' opinion. Even though the difference of the action of the subordinates from his or her images of the work is very small, the crusher boss will try to rectify such action as quickly as he can.

・He or she will not listen to the opinion of the person who work under him or her, although he or she will force his or her opinion on their subordinates.

( Reference: クラッシャー上司 - Wikipedia(Japanese))

 One of the characteristic of the Crusher Boss is that the work he or she do seems to be highly achieved and worth trusted through the eye from the colleague or boss of the Crusher Boss. On the other hand, if he or she needs to be in the relationship with  the Crusher Boss as a subordinate, I think it will be tragedy since the colleague or the boss of the Crusher Boss are on the side of the Crusher Boss even though they had sympathy of the subordinates.

When you google it, in most cases, the website seems to provide solutions such as quit such office or job and run away from such situation. But there are some cases where you cannot quit your job and the evasion is not realistic. So I would like to think of four solutions to this situation when it is difficult to quit a job.

1.Analyze deeply why you hate the Crusher Boss

Hating someone is the backside of your desire. If you have no desire, you will not hate anyone.

Although each person has each reason why people hate the Crusher Boss, in my experience, it will be the threat of the sense of the value of the work. It is the backside of the feeling such as "I want to work freely" or " I want to decide all things." without such boss.

2.If you are able to analyze your desire, you need to rethink whether such desire is necessary for you

If the desire is that you wanted your sense of the value of the work to be recognized by such Crusher Boss, you need to rethink of that. The Crusher Boss lives in a different world from you. You might be able to think the Crusher Boss as Gorilla. You really want your values to be recognized by Gorilla?

As lots of books mentions, it is almost impossible to change the value of the Crusher Boss (Same as you cannot change Gorilla into human beings). It will be worth nothing to try to change the character of the Crusher Boss. If you think as such, there will be more choices for action you can take.

3. Observe the action of the Crusher Bosses in detail and if there are any slight actions which are benefit for you, tell the Crusher Bosses the complement or praise to such actions and lead such Crusher Bosses to comfortable person in a manner that the Crusher Boss doesn't know such change was caused from you.

This is the method explained in the book called "The technique to avoid to be scolded*1". The Crusher boss is also wondering how he or she should be as a boss. They don't want to be a bad person from the first time. By praising, you might be able to provide the images of the ideal boss from you. (For example, the Crusher Boss might sometime trust your work, immediately; tell him “Thanks for trusting my work. You are surely generous man." This method requires patience and you need to tell him many times but if the Crusher Boss was told as such for a many times, the Crusher Boss starts labeling their self images such as they are very generous man and there are slight possibilities for their changes.) However, since the Crusher Boss is generally very cautious person, you need to be very careful for the complement.Your intention might be seen through by the Crusher Boss

4.Always think the multiple solutions. It is skill, not a gift, to think of many ideas for solution when you are in trouble. Such skill is very useful wherever you work. It is desirable to acquire such skill in this kind of situation.

 Lastly, the Crusher Boss will not success if the Crusher Boss finishes being as a Crusher Boss. The reason is clear. The Crusher Boss has a narrowed view of the world (Again, it is worth nothing to try to change such Crusher Boss by directly correcting his stance. If any, I think the solution would be kind of 3 above in which unconsciously lead the Crusher Boss to change his or her stance). Although his prestige might be little better than you, he will soon reach a deadlock. On the other, by contacting with such Crusher Boss, I think there are some benefits for you. There is an opinion which indicates that you will grow most when the stress exists*2. You don't have to think of revenge. I think it is enough for you to observe the Crusher Boss as a Gorilla.

This was the summery but I would like to discuss this issue again in detail.

 *1 (I think It is not translated in English)

https://www.amazon.co.jp/怒られない技術-「失敗」を切り抜ける心理テクニック-知的発見-BOOKS-内藤誼人-ebook/dp/B00GOL2QW4

 *2 Japanese translated version of "Kelly McGonigal, The Upside of Stress: Why stress is good for you (and how to get good at it) "

スタンフォードのストレスを力に変える教科書 | ケリー・マクゴニガル, 神崎 朗子 |本 | 通販 | Amazon