Globalization and Enlightenment thought(2)

 Last time(Globalization and Enlightenment thought(1) - すべての会社員を支援するブログ), I explained that the contemporary world is the place where the Enlightment thought has been spreading over the world from 18th century. This time, I would like to discuss what the ultimate stage of this phenomenon would be.

 The conclusion is that ultimate stage over the world will be almost same as the United State. It might be not perfectly same but it will reach as same. The reason I think as such is because the Enlightment thought has been taken root in the United States

1.The reason why I think the Ultimate world is United States.

 Alexis de Tocqueville wrote a book called ”Democracy in America" in the middle of 19th century. This is the book in which the analysis of the democracy is written by Tocqueville who traveled over the United States. If you read this book, you will find that the main characteristic of the people in the United States has not been changed since then.

 One of the examples for that is the people in the United States strongly believes the illimitable possibilities of human beings [1]. This might be difficult for Japanese to understand it but in summary, all human has the unlimited possibility to success. Japanese are thought traditionally the fact that all the prosperity is subject to decline but you will find that such thought will be very difficult to be acceptable in the United States if you talked with the persons in the United States.

 The point I want to focus on this book is that the people in the United States will learn the analysis method of Rene Descartes without specially being thought of it. [2]

 The analysis method of Rene Descartes is explained in the book called "Discourse on the Method".  This book is famous for “I think, there for I am" but originally it is written for the explanation of the analysis method of Rene Descartes. In this book, he emphasized that all the problem will be solved by his method! There are four processes [3]. I will explain it with our today's business word.

 First, you will never accept it as true if you cannot prove it as such.

⇒This means that by questioning " Is it really so?” you only accept the one you feel it as true. If you say this in our today's business word, it will be Sangen Shugii [The Three Actuals] "The actual place, the actual part, the actual situation." in Toyota. If you don't know what is happening in the actual place, it is often the case where the raised problem will not be solved properly.

 Second, to divide the problem in the part as smallest as possible. Third, to solve from the easiest one to more complex one and assign them in thought a certain order.

⇒ I think some of the factors of the second method and the third method are overlapped. What are being said in these method is same as "Pay attention to big picture, start small station" or "a journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step" 

 Last, in every case to make enumerations so complete, and reviews so general that I might be assured that nothing was omitted

⇒This is MECE in today's business word. MECE stands for "Mutually Exclusive and Collectively Exhaustive".

 Alexis de Tocqueville told us in his book" In 18 the century, this method spread over the range of where Rene Descartes or former analysts did not have the will to analyze."[4].Rene Descartes analyzed only specific fields but the Enlightenment age was the time when the people analyzed the new fields such as religion or politics in 18the century.

 Although it might be kind of the Anti-intellectualism, we can confirm that the Enlightment thought has been taken root in the United States. Alexis de Tocqueville mentioned in his book that with respect to the method of Rene Descartes, it is not thought in school but it naturally let the people learn such method[5].( Alexis de Tocqueville thinks that it is because of the democracy but I will discuss the reason why another time).

2.If you want to be promoted, you will need to explain the meaning of the existence

 As the fourth method of Rene Descartes is kind of MECE, we can see that today's business world is strongly affected by Enlightment thought. If you want it or not, we are scheduled to learn it.

 In other word, the result of hard competition is that we will learn just such thought. Although we cannot conclude whether this is bad thing or not, we can recognize that the contemporary world is as such.

 For example, there is a book called" The persons who are promoted don’t care their personnel assessment. [6]”. The author of this book is a HR consultant who has being contacting with wide range of persons.  He insists that the persons who are promoted have the answers of whys with thier originality [7]. If you want to be promoted, you will need to face those questions of why in good faith. Although, in Japan, you need to read between the lines which leads to the limit of asking "why", such limit will disappear soon. This example shows us also that Enlightment thought strongly affects the contemporary world.

 I think the next discussion will be “how further we will need to explain when we are asked "why?" considering above. I would like to discuss it next time.



[1] Alexis de Tocqueville(translated by Reiji, Matsumoto), America no Democuraci( Dainikan (Jyou),[Democracy in America], P64, Iwanami Bunko, 2014


[2]P18 of[1] 

[3]Rene Descartes(translated by Keiko Tanigawa) , Houhou Jyosetsu, [Discourse on the Method], P28, P29, Iwanami Bunko, 2008.


[4]P21 of[1]

[5]P18 of [1]

[6]Yoshihiro, Hirayasu, Shutsuse Suru Hito Wa Jinji Hyouka Wo Kinisinai [The persons who are promoted don't  care their personel assesment.], Nikkei Shibunusha, 2014


[7] P113 of [6]


 前回(グローバリゼーションと啓蒙主義(1) - すべての会社員を支援するブログ)、啓蒙主義が18世紀途絶えず生き続け、現代においてグローバルに普及していることを説明しました。この現象が行きつく世界を考えたいと思います。












 ⇒要するにいまのビジネス用語でいうところのMECEです。MECEとは、 Mutually Exclusive and Collectively Exhaustiveの略で、要するに重複なく・漏れなくという意味です。









 [1]トクヴィル著(松本礼二訳)『アメリカのデモクラシー (第2巻上)』64頁(岩波文庫、2014年)



















啓蒙主義の一般的な定義は、 「啓蒙時代」とも呼ばれる17世紀~18世紀ヨーロッパで広まった、神学に代表される旧来の伝統や権威を理性のもとに批判し、民衆を啓蒙しようする考え方[1]です。一般的には、18世紀ぐらいに終わっている思想ととらえられているらしいのですが、実はまだ続いているのではないかと思います。その具体例のひとつが、トヨタの業務プロセスの「見える化」なのではないかと考えています。






[1]啓蒙主義とは - 日本語表現辞典 Weblio辞書

Globalization and Enlightenment thought(1)

 This time I would like to discuss the meaning of the globalization.
 What is the globalization?
 I think it is not simply the matter of that the range of the economic activity became global. You need to explain all the things the reason why it exists or why it needs to be existing because of the fact that the economic activities became global. And if you cannot explain that, such thing cannot exist anymore.
 For example, the Amazon which is the service born in the United States allows us to buy almost anything in Japan: beginning from books to daily necessities. The business environment of the retail shops and book stores in Japan which treat such things became severe because of the service born in the United States. We need to explain why you need to buy such things in such retail shops, not Amazon.
 Such phenomenon happens all over the world. I think we need to think of this fact from, not just the point of view of the development of the internet. We need to think of this fact by going back in the past. That is Enlightment thought. I think the recent severe competition is caused from Enlightment thought.
 What is Enlightment thought? Enlightment thought can be explained by "Mierukua (meaning the achievement of the transparence)" in Today's business word.
Mieruka is a famous working process in Toyota. It is the process which enlightens the problem in the workplace to everyone in order to improve the working process. I thought this working process originates from Toyota but now I think that Mieruka is one of Enlightment thought.
 The general definition of Enlightment thought is that it is marked by an emphasis on the scientific method and reductionism along with increased questioning of religious orthodoxy. The intellectual and philosophical movement of the Enlightment thought was dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century [1]. Generally, this movement was ended at 18th century but I think Enlightment thought is still alive. One of the examples of that is "Mieruka" in Toyota's working process.
 Enlightment thought is the thought that everyone can see the fact by achieving the transparency of social problem of those days. The Mieruka is same as it. By Mieruka, we can see the problem which tends to be concealed, solve the problem and improve the working process. The essence of the two is the same. In today's word, Enlightment thought can be explained as the phenomenon that urges the revolution to society by Mieruka of the social problem. 
 I think we can explain that the contemporary world is the place where Enlightment thought has been spreading over the world in almost 300 years.
 I referred to the example of Amazon as above but I think the confrontation of a self- existence is very familiar to many workers in contemporary world. Another example will be that, in Japan, there were days when people can be guaranteed their future income by just passing the examination of a Japanese lawyer. But nowadays, we can search legal analysis by internet so we don't always need to consult with a lawyer. Off course, the legal advice is only permitted to lawyers in Japan but I think the numbers of legal consultation is decreasing. Just passing the difficult examinations not sufficient to show why you exist as a lawyer
 "Why?" became the strong weapon of anything.We would like to discuss where we are going. Ultimate stage can be seen in the United State. I will discuss it further next time.





I think we can explain that the contemporary world is the place where the Enlightment thought has been spreading over the world in almost 200 years from 18th century.
I referred to the example of Amazon as above but I think the confrontation of a self- existence is very familiar to many workers in contemporary world. Another example will be that, in Japan, there were days when people can be guaranteed their future income by just passing the examination of a Japanese lawyer. But nowadays, we can search legal analysis by internet so we don't always need to consult with a lawyer. Off course, the legal advice is only permitted to lawyers in Japan but I think the numbers of legal consultation is decreasing. Just passing the difficult examinations not sufficient to show why you exist as a lawyer
"Why?" became the strong weapon of anything.
We would like to discuss where we are going. Ultimate stage can be seen in the United State. I will discuss it further next time.




How to treat "Crusher Boss"(3)

This time, I would like to discuss the Crusher Boss in history.

Who would be the most famous Crusher Boss in Japanese history? I will choose Oda Nobunaga.

I feel sorry for the people who are funs of Oda Nobunaga and I admit his work he had done in his lifetime but I think there is high possibility that he had the characteristic of Crusher Boss※.

※The definition of the Crusher Boss is rather vague so I don't think it will clearly determined the character of the Crusher Boss such as " he is the Crusher Boss !". I think it depends on the percentage of the character. 


He had been betrayed by Asai Nagamasa, Araki Murashige and finally he was killed by Mitsuhide Akechi who had been his subordinate. He was good at thinking rationally but is not able to think of others' feelings.

I think it is very interesting that if you watch the drama or novels of Oda Nobunaga, there are subordinates of Oda Nobunaga who survived and who couldn't survive.

This time, I will try to think of the treatment of Crusher boss by analyzing above historical fact.

It might be a cliché but I would like to choose Ieyasu Tokugawa and Hideyoshi Toyotomi for the example of who had succeeded to survive from the Crusher Boss. Before that, I would like to check briefly the life of Nobunaga Oda.

1.The life of Nobunaga Oda

Oda Nobunaga(1534 –1582) was a powerful Daimyō of Japan in the late 16th century who attempted to unify Japan during the late Sengoku period. During his later life, Nobunaga was widely known for most brutal suppression of determined opponents, eliminating those who, by principle, refused to cooperate or yield to his demands. He was both a skilled ruler and keen businessman, promoting economic reform. He was killed when his subordinate Akashi Mitsuhide rebelled against him at Honnō-ji. The administration of Nobunaga is succeeded to Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu who was the founder of Edo shogunate (1603-1867). [1]

  1. The person who survived: Tokugawa Ieyasu

I want to mention Tokugawa Ieyasu first for the subordinates of Oda Nobunaga who successfully survived.

(1)Iron sprit

Ieyasu who opened the Edo shogunate was instructed to kill his son by Nobunaga and did so by ordering him hara-kiri [2]. Generally speaking, if you are in the situation where you need to kill your child, you will go insane.  For example, Chōsokabe Motochika who had succeed to control over the Shikoku Irand in the same era was not able to work like he used to when his son happened to be killed by the Hideyoshi's policy which led his clan to be deteriorated. But Ieyasu was not. I think Ieyasu had iron sprit which recovers his difficult situation.

(2)The work does not overlap the one of Crusher Boss

Tokugawa Ieyasu and Oda Nobunaga were connected by, so-called, "Kiyosu Domei (Kiyosu Alliance)” The relationship was started as an alliance but in the last stage, it became as a boss and a subordinate. Roughly speaking, I think Kioyosu Alliance was the agreement in which Ode Nobunaga conquers the west and Ieyasu goes to east from the region which is now Aichi Prefecture.

There is a situation which, although most of the persons have been crushed, few persons were exempt from the Crusher Boss's attack. Although it might seem that there is no reason, I think it is simply caused from the fact that the work which such subordinate covers might not just overlap the work of the Crusher Boss. 

In addition to above alliance which determined who goes west or east, Nobunaga sticks to work for establishing the grand design of Japan after the Sengoku era. I think Nobunaga had a plan to conquer Ming dynasty like Qing dynasty did in the same era and start activities overseas. Such work did not overlap Ieyasu's one.

On the other hand, my opinion is that Akechi Mitsuhide overlapped such work.

  1. The person who survive: Toyotomi Hideyoshi

Hideyoshi had also some characteristic above (1)(2). He had below in addition to that.

(1) Concealing his ability

Crusher Boss has desire to be recognized his or her outstanding ability from others. If a subordinate fight with the Crusher Boss in respect of the ability, there is high possibility that the subordinate will be crushed. With regard to this aspect, Hediyoshi was brightest person.

Hideyoshi concealed his abiity from Nobunaga. For example, he led to Nobunaga to Chūgoku region as a Total Commander, saying "Please send us reinforcements since I don't have any confident to conquer Chūgoku region"[3]

Contrast to that, Mitsuhide couldn't do that like Hideyoshi when he had to struggle to conquer Shikoku Region, in which is said turned out to be a murder in Honnō-ji. He couldn't recognized his ability correctly and simply ask Nobunaga for help.

(2) Nobunaga is human beings

Hideyoshi adopted Nobunaga's fourth son since he had no children. It is widely known that this is because how wide the region Hideyoshi conquest, it will belong to Nobunaga child so it will not be minus to Nobunaga who was very paranoid person [4].

When you need to contact with the Crusher Boss, sometime you feel that the Crusher boss is not human being but he or she is human being. These days, it is not realistic to adopt the Crusher Boss' child but there is a possibility of solution when you analyze the Crusher Boss from the view of, for example, father.


  1. Last

This time I raised two persons; Hideyoshi and Ieyasu. I think there are lots of examples in history which are useful to us. If you are trouble with the Crusher Boss, the novels of Shiba Ryōtarō, such as below, are recommended. 

Shiba Ryōtarō (1973)"Shinshi taikoki" Shinchousha

Shiba Ryōtarō (2002) "Haō no ie" Shinchousha

In his theory for Honno-ji incident, Aketchi Mitsuhide was neurosis. Although almost all historians deny this theory, I am in sympathy with Shiba's thought. The reason why I am in sympathy with this theory is because he has the experience of being employed before he became as a novelist. Although there are criticisms of Shiba Ryōtarō's vision of history, so called, "Shiba Shikan", his novels will stand close to the ones who need to be under the Crusher Boss.



[1] Oda Nobunaga - Wikipedia

[2] Although my explanation might be rather rough, below books shows that it seems that it was caused from internal trouble in Ieyasu's clan. Anyhow, I think the fact that Ieyasu had iron spirit won't change.  

Taniguch Katuhiko (2007) "Nobunaga To Kieata Kashintachi” Chouoshinsho 

https://www.amazon.co.jp/信長と消えた家臣たち―失脚・粛清・謀反-中公新書-谷口-克広/dp/4121019075(*)I think it is not translated in English.


[3] I refer to 519 page of Shiba Ryōtarō (1965)"Kunitori monogatari" Shinchousha. I didn't have a chance to find out the actual letter.


(*) It seems it is not translated in English

[4] Hashiba Hidekatsu - Wikipedia

(*) The back ground of why Hideyoshi adopted Nobunaga's song is not translated in English 

[5] Amazon CAPTCHA


(*)I think it is not translated in English.

[6] Amazon CAPTCHA


(*)I think it is not translated in English. 
















織田 信長(1534年-1582年)は、16世紀後半にかけて生きた戦国大名で、戦国時代に日本の統一に道筋をつけた人物です。人生後半で、彼の指示に従わなかった反対者への残虐性がよく知られています。彼は、統治ルール作り,ビジネス感覚も優れており、経済改革を推し進めました。しかし1582年6月21日、重臣・明智光秀に謀反を起こされ、本能寺で自害。信長の政権は、豊臣秀吉による豊臣政権、徳川家康が開いた江戸幕府(へと引き継がれていくことになります。[1]
















(2) 所詮信長も人間だということがわかっていた










[1]織田信長 - Wikipedia


谷口克広『信長と消えた家臣たち―失脚・粛清・謀反 』(中公新書,2007年)




[4]羽柴秀勝 - Wikipedia

[5] Amazon CAPTCHA


[6]Amazon CAPTCHA







出典:クラッシャー上司 - Wikipedia















3. 建設的な反論を受け入れられない